Phase I FundingThe total cost of the BART Silicon Valley Berryessa Extension is estimated at approximately $2.3 billion. Funding for this project is through multiple revenue streams including: the 2000 Measure A, half-cent sales tax and other local sources contribute 51%, the State of California and its Traffic Congestion Relief Program (TCRP) 10%, and federal grants including the New Starts program provides the remaining 39% of the funding.
Phase II FundingThe total cost of the BART Silicon Valley Phase II Extension is approximately $4.7 billion. The project estimate and funding strategy will be updated as project advances and after further coordination with FTA on assessment of project risks. A funding strategy for this project is planned through multiple revenue streams including: the 2000 Measure A half-cent sales tax at $1.0 billion, the 2016 Measure B half-cent sales tax at $1.5 billion, local measures revenues to fund financing and escalation costs at $400 million, Regional Measure 3 at $375 million, the State of California and its Traffic Congestion Relief Program (TCRP) at $160 million, $750 million from the state’s Transit and Intercity Rail Capital Program, and federal grants including the Expedited Project Delivery program at approximately $1.4 billion. VTA’s funding strategy of $5.581 billion assumes a level of additional contingency required by FTA that is anticipated based on future risk assessment results.
2000 Measure A
On August 9, 2000, the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) Board of Directors voted to place a 30-year half-cent transit sales tax on the November 7, 2000 General Election ballot, giving Santa Clara County voters the opportunity to vote on transportation improvements in the county including construction of a BART extension from Alameda County to Santa Clara County.
Measure A was approved by 70.3 percent of the voters and collection of the tax began in April 2006 to help fund design and construction of VTA’s BART Silicon Valley project.
2008 Measure B: Operation and Maintenance Funding
On November 4, 2008, an additional Santa Clara County ballot measure supporting the BART extension passed, receiving 66.78% of the vote, exceeding the two-thirds super majority. The 30-year eighth-cent Measure B sales tax will generate dedicated revenue to fulfill VTA's obligation to BART for the operation, maintenance, and future capital reserve of the extension VTA constructs.
2008 Measure B stipulated that collection of the eighth-cent sales tax begin when federal and state funds were secured. Federal funds were considered secured and matched at the time VTA received a $900 million Full Funding Grant Agreement in March 2012. Collection of the eighth-cent sales tax began on July 1, 2012.
2016 Measure B
In June 2016, the VTA Board of Directors unanimously adopted the framework and funding amounts to place an additional half cent 30-year sales tax measure on the November 8, 2016 ballot to help fund transportation priorities. An extensive 18-month public outreach process gathered input and suggestions on how to best improve the transportation needs of Santa Clara County. Through this process, a list of categories and transportation projects was approved, including a plan to invest $1.5 billion in Phase II of VTA’s BART Silicon Valley Extension. Measure B, which required a two-thirds majority vote, was approved by voters by more than 71 percent of the vote and collection of the half-cent sales tax began in April 2017.
Traffic Congestion Relief Program (TCRP)
In August 2014, VTA received the sixth and final allocation from the State of California’s Traffic Congestion Relief Program (TCRP) for VTA’s BART Silicon Valley Extension. The $39 million allocation brought the total amount of TCRP funding received for the extension to $649 million. The California Transportation Commission, who is responsible for overseeing state-funded transportation programs, has allocated a total of $768 million to the project.
VTA’s BART Silicon Valley was identified as one of 53 projects statewide eligible to receive TCRP funds in 2000, when legislation passed creating the program.
Early TCRP allocations funded project engineering and environmental clearance activities. The final allocation helped fund construction of the Milpitas and Berryessa BART station campuses and design and construction of the parking structures at the two stations.
Transit and Intercity Rail Capital Program (TIRCP)
In May 2018, VTA was awarded $238,360,000 of a total award of $750,000,000 from the State of California’s Transit and Intercity Rail Capital Program (TIRCP). The additional $511,640,000 will be distributed over the life of the project.
TIRCP was created by Senate Bill 862 and modified by Senate Bill 9 to provide grants from the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund to fund transformative capital improvements that will modernize California’s transit systems while curtailing emissions from greenhouse gases by reducing congestion and vehicle miles traveled throughout the state.
Regional Measure 3
In June 2018, 55 percent of voters in nine Bay Area counties approved Regional Measure 3. This measure added a $1 toll increase on seven state-owned bridges in January 2019, with additional $1 increases in 2022 and 2025. Regional Measure 3 will provide $375 million to Phase II.
Expedited Project Delivery Pilot Program
The Expedited Project Delivery (EPD) Pilot Program is part of the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA) Capital Investment Grants Program. EPD is intended to provide federal funding through an expedited review process for fixed guideway capital projects, small starts projects, and core capacity improvement projects. In this program, the Federal share cannot exceed 25 percent of the project’s cost, requires FTA to use an expedited technical capacity review process, and the project must have a public-private partnership included. EPD aims at increasing innovation, improving efficiency and timeliness of project implementation, and encouraging new revenue streams.
Sponsors eligible to participate in the EPD Pilot Program must have recently and successfully completed at least one new fixed guideway capital project, Small Starts project, or Core Capacity improvement project; achieved budget, cost, and ridership outcomes for the project that are consistent with or better than projections; and demonstrate that it continues to have staff expertise and other resources to implement a new project.
In November 2018, VTA submitted an Expression of Interest to participate in the EPD Pilot Program. In 2019, FTA will select up to eight projects to participate. If selected, VTA anticipates receiving a Full Funding Grant Agreement (FFGA) in mid-2020.
New Starts Program
FTA’s New Starts program is the federal government's primary discretionary financial resource for supporting locally planned, constructed, implemented, and operated major transit projects. This program funds new commuter rail, light rail, heavy rail, and bus rapid transit projects, streetcars, and ferries, as well as extensions to existing transit systems in every area of the country. VTA submitted an application to enter into New Starts Project Development for Phase II in March 2016, prior to submitting an Expression of Interest to participate in FTAs EPD Pilot Program. If the Phase II project is not selected to participate in EPD Pilot Program, VTA has the ability to re-enter the New Starts Program for federal funding.
Local support required: New Starts projects, like all transportation investments in metropolitan areas, must emerge from a regional, multi-modal, transportation-planning process. In the San Francisco Bay Area, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) is the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) that oversees transportation planning for the nine Bay Area counties. MTC has included the BART Silicon Valley Extension in the 2040 Regional Transportation Plan.
How projects are evaluated: New Starts projects undergo evaluation by the FTA throughout the entire project development process. Based on this evaluation, the FTA makes decisions about moving projects forward, from preliminary engineering to final design, and to the execution of a Full Funding Grant Agreement (FFGA) to annual funding recommendations to Congress. The FFGA is the multi-year contractual agreement between the FTA and VTA that formally defines the project scope, cost and schedule, and establishes the terms of federal financial assistance.
Phase I of the project (Berryessa Extension) was given an overall project rating of medium in the FTA New Starts Annual Report for Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2011, which was released February 15, 2011. VTA requested $900 million in federal New Starts funding, and the medium rating helped to positively position the project to qualify and compete for that funding. In January 2012, VTA was notified by the FTA that the agency's $900 million grant request for the Phase I project received all of the necessary administrative approvals.
In March 2012, a Full Funding Grant Agreement (FFGA) with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) was executed, allowing the commencement of construction of the BART Silicon Valley Berryessa Extension, with a formal project groundbreaking ceremony kicking off project construction on April 12, 2012.
Potential Public Private Partnerships
Public-private partnerships being considered for Phase II include Design-Build-Financing (DBF) of the tunnel, Transit-Oriented Joint Development (TOJD), and Tax Increment Financing (TIF). With DBF, a tunnel contractor would agree to a fixed price, date of completion, design-build contract, and responsibility for financing all or a portion of the contract value. VTA would pay the contractor when certain milestones are met. Additional benefits of this partnership include the allocation of risk to the party most able to control the risk and the ability of VTA to induce schedule performance.
TOJD would allow VTA to work with private developers to build mixed-use, high-density development at project stations and facility sites. These partnerships will result in direct private contributions such as infrastructure costs or construction of area betterments, revenue from air rights sales, or long-term ground leases.
TIF would allow VTA to work with the cities of San José and Santa Clara to create districts on land surrounding the project and would capture property tax increments generated above a revenue baseline established at the time of the district’s creation. As an order of magnitude, value capture districts are anticipated to generate more than $400 million through the year 2075.